Sunday, 23 October 2016



It is very important to understand the power of process / procedures that actually transforming input into the output. That means there could be various system setups which has been integrated in the same organization to cater various types of objectives. In an organization, there are various departments and they process input into output as per their responsibilities and obligations towards any other departments within the organization, They also change their dynamics in accordance with Management by Objective(MBO). 

To understand, the various system setup within the organization to cater short and long term objectives, we may use different types of system within same organization to accomplish the desired goals:-

  1. Open and Closed System
  2. Physical and Abstract System
  3. Deterministic and Probabilistic System 
Open System:- Open system is a system which can gets affected by the external sources or changes its business dynamics with a change in the external business environment.

Example:- Before starting an organization, we have to see the dynamics of internal and external environments of business concepts and then we need to align our vision and mission around the requirements and in accordance with the external forces. if any changes are occurring in its external business environment, being a organization, we should immediately align internal premises to cater those changes. For instance:- in 2015, Government of India are emphasizing on using LED lamps to save power consumption and started a scheme of distributing LED lamps in EMI. This change in external environment can be converted into a viable business opportunities and those who are dealing with manufacturing of CFL LAMPS and Tube Lights, now they can strategies how to market LED lamps.

Closed System:- Closed system is a system which has no interaction with the external environment or cannot gets affected with a change in external environment.

Example:- Closed system is that provision which is being kept isolated as per part of system arrangements. Like in R&D, whatever are being researched, kept confidential and only few personnel are aware of the same, so that once the research is done, a patent and copyright can be filled to have complete ownership. If things goes out, competitors may exploit this opportunity and try to intrude in your knowledge management. 

Physical System:- Physical System is a system which is tangible in nature or which you can be seen and touched.

Example:- In Manufacturing Unit, assemply lines are the system which is installed systematically or in that order which can transform input into output. That you can see and touch.

Abstract System:- Abstract system is intangible in nature, which can be felt not seen.

Example:- When we use software, did we see how it is handling all the commands and processing the same into results. Abstract system is something whose processing and results can only be felt not seen. Peer pressure is also an example of abstract system which many HR uses to get the things done through others.

Deterministic System:- It is a system in which the result/Output is determined or known.

Example:- Deterministic system is that system which is tested with some resources and used within specific time, and the results are constant after every test.If more resources and time are spent on them, results are  increasing but upto certain limits because every system has its own boundary. When we talk about engine, its Bhp are determined if it is being operated upto 3000 rpm. There are so many examples which market themselves with the determined output property of the product. 

Probabilistic System:- It is a system in which the result / output is not known.

Example:- In the organization, there is no system which can exactly tell what will be the total sale in the current year. Actually we project the sales target of financial year on the basis of previous years performance. This can be done with the use of statistical tools like trend analysis and regression analysis etc to project the probable sales and on the basis of current market scenerio, we set targets and try to achieve those targets. Accomplishment of sales target entirely depends upon what you have arranged in the form of resources and marketing strategy. Some time you succeed and may fail in achieving your sales target.


Internet:-  Internet is the network of networks which allows everyone to access anything across the world available in digital format that include Knowledge, Leisure, Virtual Market, Education over one space called Internet.

Internet is the backbone of globalization which can create one network where anyone can access any content, buy & sell product and services, share any thought-content, and transact with the each other. That can be for individual interest and professional setup. One World One Network.

Those who wants to be a part of Internet, one must comply the internet protocols and use the power of global network to reach each and every corner of this world. Marketers have exploited this power and now using this to reach their respective customers using E-Commerce and marketing through Digital Marketing to create awareness and inform customers. Internet users in the whole world in more that 3.5 billion and increasing at the average rate of 8% per year.

Since it is open network,  Internet is also known as Public Network where anyone complying the internet protocols can access anything. There are many biggest name who have changed the way we communicate using Mail Services, Cloud Storage and Instant Messaging services including Google, Yahoo, and Facebook etc.

Intranet:- Intranet is a private network developed by the enterprise for private use. In this type of network setup only authorized users can access the data and resources for communication and processing day to day activities of the enterprise, thus ensuring the privacy and security of data within the enterprise.

Intranet can be created on Local Area Network and over Internet, both have their own advantages and disadvantages. If Intranet has been created over LAN, then only authorized user can access data and process day to day activity within the enterprise setup as all must be accessing these services over Local Area Network. In case if any user is outside the enterprise network setup, user will not be able to access the Intranet resources.

Now a days, Intranet is available over Internet which gives the flexibility to the enterprise authorized user to gain the access of enterprise resources from any corner of the world. When we are in open network, there is always a concern of data security. While working with Public Network, Intranet uses Secure Socket Layer protocols to encrypt the data punched via browser in the Intranet page of the enterprise by all its authorized users from the globe.

Extranet:- Like Intranet, Extra-net is also a Private Network. Logically it is the extension of Intranet where enterprise extends its private network to their customers, supplier, vendors, trading partners and other business entities. In this network setup, authorized extended users like customers and trading partners can partially access the enterprise resources as per the agreed term & conditions and such communication which can satisfy both party needs and wants. It's like automating business processes and aligning the business transaction between enterprise and its trading parties including customers and suppliers.

Since it is a private network, data security and privacy of all the stakeholders are very important, to protect the same, it runs over firewall, SSL, and VPN setup ensuring the protection from data intruders. With the help of Extranet, enterprise can disseminate large amount of data using EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) between Customers, Suppliers and Business partners ensuring smooth and fast transactions without the intervention of human being. Enterprise can share product and service catalogs, Joint research, work group collaboration and Banks can collaborate banking services with each other to provide better services to their customers. Ex:- ATM.

Monday, 17 October 2016


Introduction:- When two or more computers are connected with each other with an intention to share data and resources, it is known as Network. To have Network, architecture on how to create the connectivity has already been discussed in the earlier post. Network can be designed using the suitable topology depending upon the needs, wants, and reach. That decides its purpose and size. The size of the computer network can be expressed by the geographical area they occupy / cover and numbers of computer are connected within that area. Network may have handful of devices connected within a small room, building and billions of computer spread across the globe. Lets understand the types of Computer Network based on its size:-

1. PAN (Personal Area Network)
2. LAN (Local Area Network)
3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
4. WAN (Wide Area Network)

PAN (Personal Area Network):-  A Personal Area Network is a computer network organised for personal /individual use within single building, residence and small office. A PAN may include one or more computers, peripherals, home entertainment system(network enabled- TV, Music Players, Home Theater system), printers and video game consoles. Sometimes this types of network is also known as HAN (Home Area Network) where two or more individuals uses the resources including the Internet.

 LAN (Local Area Network):- A Local Area Network is a computer network which is spread across 1 KM of area, School, Offices or within the building. It is very useful setup to create an environment of data sharing and resources including printers, computer peripherals, and Internet. Mostly LAN is created using the wired setup for increased security and speed, but in some cases wireless setup can also be created in LAN, which may connect few machines or thousands of computer using the wired and wireless topology.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network):- A MAN is a computer network which is spread across the city. MAN generally consists of two or more LAN which makes it bigger ( Collage Campuses, Office branches etc). It can also be understood by the angle of Service providers who has to create an infrastructure of network through which they can connect an individual and business subscribers to Internet and broadband services. 

WAN (Wide Area Network):-  Wide Area Network is a computer network which can connect computers across the country and computers across the globe. It is also know as Internet. WAN has revolutionized the way we communicate with each other or to remain connected from any corner of earth provided you have WAN/Internet connection. WAN consists of all the LAN and MAN of the entire world provided all the connected devices wishes to participate in the WAN.

Saturday, 15 October 2016


Meaning of Network Topology:- Network Topology is very important to create a network as it defines how a computer will be connected with each other. In other words, Topology is the physical architecture of a Network. 

Whether it is Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN), Topology is required in any type of Network as it lay down the architecture of connectivity using various network devices / components ( Wires, Switches/Hub, Routers etc) required to develop a computer network where data and resources can be shared.

Types of Topology

1. Bus Topology

2. Ring Topology
3. Mesh Topology
4. Star Topology
5. Hybrid Topology
6.Wireless Topology

Bus Topology:- Bus topology is a network where each computer and network devices are connected to a single cable (Coaxial Cable). In this topology terminator is used in first and last computer to block the data flow in the network.


  • It is good for a small network.
  • Easiest network topology for connecting computers or peripherals in a linear fashion.
  • Requires less cable length than a Mesh and star topology.
  • Difficult to identify the problems in the network, if the whole network goes down.
  • It can be hard to troubleshoot individual device issues.
  • Not suitable for large networks.
  • Terminators are required for both the ends of the main cable.
  • Additional devices slow the network down.

Ring Topology:- A ring network is a topology in which each node connects to other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - called Ring. Data travels from node to node where flow of message can be set clock wise and anti clock wise.

  • All data flows in one direction, that reduces the chance of packet collisions.
  • A network server is not needed to control network connectivity between each workstation.
  • Data can transfer between workstations at high speeds.
  • Additional workstations can be added without impacting performance of the network.
  • All data being transferred over the ring topology / network must pass through each workstation on the network. That will make it slower network as if the traffic on the network is high, data packets will take time to being transferred within the network.
  • Since the data being transferred must pass through each workstation, the entire network will be impacted if one workstation shuts down or goes out of order.

Mesh Topology:-  A Mesh Topology is network setup where each computer and network devices are interconnected with one another. With this topology, data and messages can be distributed for most for most transmissions in the network, even if one of the connections go down.

  • Data can be sent from different devices simultaneously
  • Even if one computer is down, it will not affect the network. Only the affected computer will go out from the network.
  •  Since each nodes are connected with other nodes individually, higher transfer of data is achieved.
  • Expansion and Modification is easy  
  •  There would always be chance of connection redundancy.
  • Cost of this topology is very high.
  • Troubleshooting is very complex and time consuming. 

Star Topology:- A Star Topology is a network setup where each computer/node is connected individually to a central connecting point called switch or a hub.

  • With this Topology, Network can be centrally  managed through the use of the central computer, hub, or switch.
  • Easy to add another computer to the network.
  • If one computer on the network fails, the rest of the computer/ network continues to function normally.
  • The central network device(Switch/Hub) determines the performance and number of nodes the network can handle.
  • If the central computer, hub, or switch fails, the entire network goes down and all computers are disconnected from the network.

Hybrid Topology:-  a hybrid topology is network setup where it integrates two different types of topologies.

  • Fault detection and troubleshooting is easy.
  • It is easy to extend the size of the network by adding additional components.
  • It is flexible in nature and it can be designed according to the requirements.
  • Since it is mixture of two types of topology, one can easily use the strength of one topology to meet the needs and requirements in the network.
  • It is not easy to design since it is the integration of two different types of topology.
  • Hubs/Routers used in this topology are expensive. 
Wireless Topology:-  A wireless topology is the network setup where each nodes are connected and interacting wireless, with no use of physical connectivity with the help of Wireless Access Point / Access Point. In Wireless Topology each computer/ node has to comply the wireless data transmission protocols/ standards.


Sunday, 4 September 2016


Transmission modes refers to transferring the data between two or more devices. With the help of these, we can directs the flow of information between two computers. These settings are available on NIC (Network Interface Card) without which no computer can participate over any types of Network.

There are three types of transmission mode:-

1. Simplex Mode
2. Half-Duplex Mode
3. Full Duplex Mode

Simplex Mode:-  In this mode, transmission can be sent in one direction, which means in this mode, a computer can either send or receive the data over the network. Example:- Television Broadcasting, Loudspeaker, Keyboard

Half Duplex Mode:- In this mode, transmission can be sent in both the directions, but not simultaneously. in other word, in this method, a computer can send and receive the data, but not simultaneously. That means, if a computer is sending data, then while sending, it cannot receive data and if a computer is receiving ,then it cannot send data at the same time.

Example:- Walkie Talkie

Full Duplex Mode:- In this mode, data can be sent in both the directions simultaneously.  Example - Telephone lines.

By- Amrish Kr. Choubey
Follow me on Twitter @amrishchoubey


Introduction:- Communication is the life line of human being, thus we communicate with each other with a language which other party can understand and respond back. Any barrier in communication will lead to confusion. 

In today's information driven world, where there are more then 3 billion internet users who access the internet for information. To access information over internet, we need to have an computer or any other electronic system, who can access internet and process the information for us. 

That means computer and e-devices are communicating with each other over network and data stored within are being shared. Since we all know, computer understands only binary language (0,1) (Low, high), we need to devise a system which can create a pathway / system where two or more devices can interact and data can be transmitted electronically with the logic of basic elements of communication system. (Frequency)

Lets Understand the Elements of Communication system where how computer participates in communication system between two or more computer

1. Sender:- In a computer network, a computer can become sender when a user is composing a message /content and attaching the files to send other. While composing the message over whatsapp, Email Interfaces and other mail applications, user encode the message in a language which recipient can understand (English language) and we click on send so that communication applications can again encode the same into number of packets (electronic form) so that message can be transmitted over the network protocols to the recipient computer.

2. Transmission Medium:- It is a physical pathway by which the message in electronic form travels from one place to another, with the help of network protocols which governs the data communication. (Wired, Wireless)

3. Receiver:- When we receive communication/message whether in written or in verbal form, we try to decode / understand the message. In the same case when a computer receives data packets from the sender machine, then the receiver computer decodes the message in the original drafted language(english) so that user can read and understand the communication. This process is known as re-assembling the packets in its original format. Please note:- it is done with the help of network protocols which is specifically designed to govern the data communication, encoding and decoding as per the network frequency requirements.

By- Amrish Kr. Choubey
Follow me on Twitter @amrishchoubey

Tuesday, 23 August 2016


Introduction: Application software are set of instructions written in such a way that it must satisfy one's need. It consists of multiple applications bundled together. They often have related functions, and user interfaces which can interact with each other or open each other's files for further processing. For example:- Microsoft Office is an office automation suite which has bundled applications like Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint and Microsoft Access etc.

Pic Source-Internet

Application software are being developed to automate the specific functional department so that the transactions occurring in the interest of the department / organization can be recorded electronically, so that meaningful data can be processed further to interpret in the information.

Information is customized into reports which further accessed by the top level, Middle level and any member who is responsible, so that information can be converted into knowledge. Knowledge helps them to analyse the existing environment and performance so that correct actions can be initiated in the interest of the organization. For Example:- Tally. Tally is the application software developed to automate the accounting practices in the organization which is capable to record all the transactions occurring in the interest of the organization, prepares books of account, Profit & Loss Account and automatically prepares balance Sheet etc, which disseminate the financial information to the stakeholders in the organization and helps them to manage the financials effectively.

Pic Source-Internet

Now, Lets discuss the types of application software

1. Enterprise Software:- This type of software are oriented towards Industry needs and wants. There are number of Enterprise software which is designed to serve different purpose of the organization. In organization, there are different departments which is integrated in a way which coordinates various tasks of the organization and these departments are synced to achieve the goals of the organization. 

The objective behind the enterprise software is to automate various departments of the organization so that transactions of these departments can be recorded electronically and then the same can be further integrated/processed within the departments for data/info distribution to have smooth work coordination. This helps the organization to have fast access of work data within the fraction of seconds, helps in provided good customer services, helps to maintain good relations with the suppliers, helps to understand the consumers tastes and preferences thus increases the performance and the accountability within the system. 

Enterprise Software is also knows as ERP, provided all the functional modules are integrated within the organization.

ex:- Customer Relationship Management(CRM), Supply Chain Management(SCM), Material Management System(MMS), Financial Management System(FMS) etc are the enterprise software developed to support the various functions of the industry. Company Involved in this business:- SAP, Oracle, BAAN, People Soft, Microsoft etc.

Pic Source-Internet

Pic Source-Internet

Pic Source-Internet

2. Enterprise Infrastructure Software:- EIS provides necessary capabilities required to support / run the enterprise software. Examples include databases, email servers, and systems for managing networks and security. Database is the backbone of the enterprise software as it records the entire raw facts/data of each department and gives the access to enterprise software to manipulate/ process / transform the recorded data into any form of meaningful information which can satisfy the information need of any level of management.

Pic Source-Internet

3. Information worker software:- are those software which addresses the needs of individuals to create and manage information. Examples include time management, resource management, documentation tools, analytical, and collaborative. Word processors, spreadsheets, email and blog clients, personal information system, and individual media editors may aid in multiple information worker tasks.

4. Content access software: those software which access the content of files without editing. There are software available which can access the content and allows user to edit the same. Each content which we play or save are of different file system thus we need to have different content access application software to access the data stored in the file structure. Example:- .doc , .pdf, .xls , .mp3 etc. Therefore, we need to have Microsoft Office to access the files with .doc and .xls, Adobe reader for .pdf and vlc player for .mp3.

Pic Source-Internet

5. Educational Software:- is like a content access software, but has the distinct content designed to address different domains for use in by educators or students. For example, online and offline tutorial and courses in typing, foreign language, Maths, Science etc.

Pic Source-Internet

6. Simulation Software:- are computer software for simulation of physical or abstract systems for either research, training or entertainment purposes. Mostly simulation software are used in training programs to have an idea/experience of system and facilities, so that candidates can be exposed and trained before putting them in real time situation.Example:- Airport Simulation software, Driving simulation software etc.

Pic Source-Internet
Pic Source-Internet

7. Media development software:- are those software which facilitates the user to develop and generate print and e-media for others to consume. It is mostly in commercial and educational settings. This includes Graphic Art software, Desktop Publishing software, Multimedia Development software, Digital Animation editors, Digital Audio and Video composition, HTML editors etc.

Pic Source-Internet
Pic Source-Internet

8. Product Engineering Software:- PES is used to develop and design hardware and software products and any other product. The most important tools includes computer aided design (CAD), computer aided engineering (CAE), computer language editing and compiling tools, Integrated Development Environments, and Application Programmer Interfaces (Visual basics).

Pic Source-Internet

Follow me on Twitter @amrishchoubey